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A GUIDE TO SOURCES ON MAINE IN THE AGE OF DISCOVERY
The Web Edition (2005)

By Emerson W. Baker
Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction

I. General Works
Bibliographies
The Northeast
Maine

II. Published Primary Sources

Exploration
Settlement

III. Special Topics

Prehistoric Archaeology                                                                
Native Americans and their Relations with Europeans                       
Exploration and the Popham Colony                                          
English Settlement                                                                          
The French
Commerce and Trade (including the Fur Trade)
Frontier Warfare and Diplomacy
Architecture and Landscape
Videos
Web Sites 



PREFACE TO THE 2005 WEB EDITION

            This bibliography was first compliled and published in Roger Howell, Roger, Jr., and Baker, Emerson W.  Maine in the Age of Discovery.  Portland:  Maine Historical Society, 1988.  This volume was part of Maine Historical Society’s contribution to the Maine Humanities Council’s Land of Norumbega Project. This National Endowment for the Humanities funded project led Maine in the commemoration of the Columbian Quincentenary of 1992.  That volume is long out of print. Hence, the following is a an expanded and updated edition, available soley on the internet.

            Much has changed in early Maine studies since 1988, as a growing number of scholars have turned their attention to the region. Most advances have been done by two groups of scholars: archaeologists and ethnohistorians. Many of the new citations are related to the Wabanki and their relatioship with Europeans. Many of the new historical archaeological materials relate to this theme as well, as most of the sites under excavation served as trading posts or fortifications, or were homesteads destroyed in Native American raids.

            This edition contains all of the references from the original edition, even though some have been surpassed by new publications. All sections of Part III (Special Topics) have been expanded, with the exception of Prehistoric Archaeology. That section has been left as is, because there is a much better bibliography of Maine prehistori available at the Maine Historic Preservation Commission’s web site at:  www.state.me.us/mhpc/biblio.htm  A detailed bibliography on Maine Historical Archaeology can also be found at that address. Five new sections have been added to the special topics, covering Commerce and Trade, Frontier Warfare (including the Fur Trade), Architecture and Landscape, Videos, and Web Sites.

               Despite the additions, this is still very much a work in progress, and should not be considered to be authoritative.  Although new materials have been added, none as yet have been annotated. Likewise the section introductions have not yet been updated. This work will hopefully be done in the near future, time permitting.  Some worthy materials have probably been overlooked, and the author apologizes for any such oversights. Indeed, he welcomes suggestions of references that should be added. Rather than wait for something closer to perfection, he chose to go ahead and make the resource available.

            Finally I would like to thank my friends and colleagues whose work is included here. The many  additions to this edition stand as a testament to their hard work, commitment, and scholarship.
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INTRODUCTION

      Maine was the scene of much activity during the age of discovery. The region was visited by some of the more famous figures in early American history, including John Smith, Samuel de Champlain, and Henry Hudson. Even the Plymouth Colonists frequented Maine, to purchase supplies from the English fishermen, and fur pelts from the native Indians. Maine also saw some of the first attempts at European settlement in North America. In 1604 the French attempted a settlement at the mouth of the St. Croix River, only to abandon the site the next year. Three years later English settlers began a colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River, but the Popham (or Sagadahoc) Colony lasted only one winter. While the St. Croix and Popham ventures were short-lived failures, they comprise some of the first steps toward the colonization of North America.

            The initial years of exploration and settlement mark an exciting and important period in Maine's history. During this era the French and English explorers and settlers first came in contact with each other, and with Maine's Indians. The first interactions between these groups had direct implications for the development of Maine and the Maritime Provinces during the colonial period. In many ways, Maine was a very different place over three hundred years ago, and it is only  by learning of its origins that we can understand the region today. For instance, the Maine Indian land claims settlement of the 1970s was only the latest chapter in over four hundred years of often turbulent relations between the Indian and European populations of the region.

             Necessity has forced this guide to center on the period between 1525 and 1675, a more strictly defined time frame for the discovery period. In 1525 Verazzano sailed the coast of Maine, and the account of his voyage is the earliest written account of an explorer in Maine. In 1675 hostilities broke out between the English and Indian populations of Maine. The conflict, generally referred to as King Philip's War in Maine, brought to an end the first phase of English settlement in the region. Some items pertaining to both earlier and later times are also included, as they contain valuable insights into the period. For example, prehistoric archaeology has provided many important details about the ancestors of the Maine Indians of the seventeenth century. Likewise, some of the best information on Indian-European relations in Maine appears in the accounts and documents relating to King William's War (1688-1698).

            This bibliography is not meant to be an exhaustive compendium of all references to early Maine. Instead it provides the reader with an overview of the best and most accessible sources on "The Land of Norumbega: Maine in the Age of Discovery."  In particular this guide includes the collections of the Maine Historical Society Library in Portland, although several works are included which are not in the Society's collections.   The quest for works on early Maine has already been made easier by the existence of a series of detailed bibliographical guides on the history of Maine. These guides, published  in the 1970s by the Maine Historical Society, cover a wide range of topics and time periods in our history. Two of these guides in particular should be used in conjunction with this work: Roger Ray's Indians of Maine and the Atlantic Provinces: A Bibliographic Guide,  and Charles Clark's Maine during the Colonial Period: A Bibliographic Guide.

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I. GENERAL WORKS

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES

            The following bibliographies contain many important works which are beyond the scope of this essay. The works by Clark and Ray are examples from a series of bibliographies on different eras and aspects of Maine history published by the Maine Historical Society.    

Baker, Emerson. “A Guide to Sources in Maine in the Age of Discovery.” In Howell, Roger, Jr., and Baker, Emerson W.  Maine in the Age of Discovery.  Portland:  Maine Historical Society, 1988, 69-96.

Clark, Charles E. Maine during the Colonial Period: A Bibliographic Guide. Portland:  Maine Historical Society, 1974.

Nelson, Eunice. The Wabanaki: An Annotated Bibliography. Cambridge: American Friends Service Committee, 1982.

Ray, Roger B., ed.  Indians of Maine and the Atlantic Provinces:   A Bibliographic Guide.   Portland:  Maine Historical Society, 1977.

Spiess, Arthur. "A Bibliography of Maine Prehistory through 1981." Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin XXII, No. 1 (1982): 28-36. 

Quinn, David B. Sources for the Ethnography of Northeastern North America to 1611. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service, Paper No. 76. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, 1981.

Williamson, Joseph. A Bibliography of the State of Maine. Portland: The Thurston Print, 1896.  This two volume work, the "grandfather" of Maine bibliographies, contains references to many hundreds of publications on Maine published up to 1891. An invaluable resource.  

 
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THE NORTHEAST

            There are many good publications on the age of discovery and settlement in the northeast. While these works may speak only briefly about the settlement of Maine, they provide a general overview of the era, and put the Maine experience in a North American perspective. 
 

Axtell, James.   The  European  and  the  Indian:   Essays  in   the Ethnohistory  of Colonial  North  America.   New  York:   Oxford University Press, 1981.

Axtell, James. The Invasion Within. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Includes discussion of missionary efforts in Maine.     

Bailey, Alfred G.  The Conflict of European  and  Eastern  Algonkian  Cultures, 1504-1700.   2nd.  ed.  Toronto:  University of Toronto  Press, 1969.

Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983. An important analysis of the landscape of colonial New England and its peoples.

Cressy, David. Coming Over: Migration and Communication between England and New England in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. 

Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.

McManis, Douglas R. Colonial New England: A Historical Geography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.  

Morison, Samuel E. The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1971.

Quinn, David B. North America from Earliest Discovery to European Settlements. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

Salisbury, Neal.   Manitou  and  Providence.  New   York:  Oxford  University Press, 1982. Contains interpretations on Indian-European relations in early Maine. 

Trigger, Bruce, ed. Handbook of North American Indians. XV. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution, 1978.  Includes a series of articles on each of the tribes of Maine and surrounding areas. An important reference work.

Trudel, Marcel. The Beginnings of New France, 1524-1663. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1973.     

Vaughan, Alden. Puritan Frontier: Puritans and Indians, 1620-1675. 2nd. ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1979.

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MAINE

            The first two histories published on Maine both focus on the age of exploration and settlement.  James Sullivan's History of the District of Maine (1795) is riddled with inaccuracies, but can be interesting reading. Much more reliable is William Williamson's History of Maine (1832). While there are some inaccuracies in Williamson, the book holds up well considering it is now over 150 years old. Williamson discusses early Maine in intricate detail, devoting over 600 pages to describe Maine before 1700.  

            In addition to general histories of Maine, serial publications provide many articles on the topic. One of the richest sources for Maine in the Age of Exploration and Discovery is the Collections of the Maine Historical Society. The Collections, published between 1865 and 1906, include numerous articles on early Maine, as well as transcriptions of primary sources. Many of these have withstood the test of time, particularly the articles by James P. Baxter, Henry O. Thayer, Henry Burrage and Charles Banks. Other articles are of lesser value, but all are important building blocks in the development of our modern-day understanding of early Maine.

            Useful articles are scattered throughout several other periodicals, including Sprague's Journal of Maine History (1913-1925), and the Maine Historical and Geneaological Register (1884-1894). While a few of the articles in these and other journals have been individually listed in this bibliography, the reader is directed to these serials for other papers.  

            The 1990s saw the publication of two edited collections that are perhaps the best starting places for the study of seventeenth-century Maine. American Beginnings and Maine: The Pine Tree State both contain a series of chapters by leading scholars in the field of early Maine studies.

    

Baker, Emerson, et al, eds., American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Collections of the Maine Historical Society. Portland: Published by the Society, 1865-1906.

Judd, Richard, Churchill, Edwin, and Eastman, Joel, eds., Maine: The Pine Tree State. Orono: University of Maine, 1995. 

Maine Historical and Geneaological Register. Portland: S.M. Watson, 1884-1894.

Sprague's Journal of Maine History . Dover-Foxcroft: Sprague's Journal of Maine History, Inc., 1913-1925.

Sullivan, James. History of the District of Maine.1795. Reprint, Portland, Maine: Maine Historical Society, 1978.

 Williamson, William D.  History of the State of  Maine.   Hallowell, Maine:  Glazier and Masters, 1832.   


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II.  PUBLISHED PRIMARY SOURCES

EXPLORATION

            Throughout the generations, numerous people have put forward the claim that Maine was visited by Europeans in precolumbian times. Some historians have concluded that Maine was the "Vinland" described in Norse sagas, which was visited by Norse sailors in the ninth and tenth centuries. Other scholars, such as Barry Fell, have made even more incredible claims, suggesting possible visits by ancient Phoenicians, or other early cultures.

            Currently no historical or archaeological data exists which supports such hypotheses. Several rune stones and runic inscriptions "discovered" across the state have been examined by experts, and all determined to be either natural phenomena or elaborate fakes. Out of dozens of archaeological excavations which have taken place throughout the region, the only evidence to suggest early European visits to Maine is a Norse coin of the ninth century, discovered at the site of  a prehistoric Indian village on Blue Hill Bay. However, this is an isolated Norse find among thousands of native American artifacts. Archaeologists do not believe that the Norse visited Maine. Instead, they posit that the coin reached Maine via an extensive Indian trade network, active throughout the Gulf of Maine and the Maritime Provinces of Canada.

            Archaeologists have discovered that in about the year 1000 the Norse did establish a short-lived colony at L'Anse aux Meadow, at the northern tip of Newfoundland. This settlement is apparently the Vinland described in the Norse sagas. It is most likely that the Norse Penny was made into a piece of jewelry and traded from this settlment down the coast to Blue Hill Bay. It would be another five hundred years before Europeans explored Maine.

            While Verazzano visited the coast of Maine in 1525, and a report was published of his voyage, few other explorers reached Maine in the sixteenth century. Reconnaissance of the region began in earnest at the turn of the seventeenth-century. Fortunately, narratives survive for many of these early voyages. In 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold explored the coast of New England, and the accounts of the voyage written by John Brereton and Gabriel Archer provide an interesting glimpse of the first English exploration of Maine.  A follow up voyage was made by Martin Pring the following year, and a brief narrative appears for this voyage as well.  Soon afterwards, in 1604, the French, led by the Sieur de Monts, established a colony on Dochet Island, in the mouth of the St. Croix River. The settlement lasted only a year, before moving north to Port Royal, Nova Scotia. However, the explorations of de Monts assistant, Samuel de Champlain, have left us a detailed record of the coast of Maine and its native peoples at the turn of the seventeenth century.

            Even as the French moved toward Port Royal, the English were preparing for settlement in Maine. The 1605 Waymouth expedition reconnoitered the mid-coastal region of Maine, examining locations for a proposed settlement. James Rosier, a gentleman on the voyage, published a report of the expedition soon after his return to England.

            Two years after the Waymouth expedition, the Sagadahoc or Popham Colony began its brief existence at the mouth of the Kennebec River. Fortunately, Henry Thayer, the meticulous historian of the Kennebec River, long ago gathered the extensive primary documents on the colony and published these in The Sagadahoc Colony. In 1930 Charles Banks published his article "New Documents Relating to the Popham Expedition, 1607," adding several items which had been previously overlooked by Thayer and earlier researchers.

            Despite the failure of the Popham Colony, the English continued to visit the coast of Maine. Perhaps the best known of these trips was by Captain John Smith, of Virginia fame, who mapped the coast of Maine and New England in 1614. Smith's important narrative has been published in many forms.

            One of the most significant exploration narratives of Maine is Christopher Levett's "A Voyage into New England begun in 1623 and ended in 1624." Levett extensively explored southern and mid-coastal Maine, and lived on Casco Bay for about a year. He became fast friends with the Indians of Maine, and traded extensively with them. Levett's account was first published in the Collections of the Maine Historical Society, and was reprinted with notes by James P. Baxter in 1893. An authoritative edition of Levett, annotated by Roger Howell Jr., can be found in this volume.

            Two volumes in particular should be noted, as they bring together many of the exploration narratives. George Winship's  Sailors' Narratives of Voyages Along the New England Coast, 1524-1624 (1905) include  the accounts of virtually all known voyages to New England from Verazzano to Levett. Almost as valuable is Henry Burrage's  Early English and French Voyages Chiefly from Hakluyt (1906), which contains many exploration accounts, including the voyages of Jacques Cartier, and the 1607 Relation of a Voyage to Sagadahoc.    
                                                                                              

Arber, Edward, ed. Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. 2 vols. Westminster, England: Archibald Constable and Co., 1895. Smith visited the coast of Maine in 1616.

Archer, Gabriel. "The Relation of Captain Gosnold's Voyage to the North Part of Virginia." Massachusetts Historical Society Collections  3d Ser.,  VIII (1843): 72-79.

Baker, Emerson, et al, eds., American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Banks, Charles E. "New Documents relating to the Popham Expedition." Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 1929 (1930).  

Baxter, James P., ed. Sir Ferdinando Gorges and His Province of Maine 3 vols. Boston: The Prince Society, 1890. 

Baxter, James P., ed. Christopher Levett of York, the Pioneer Colonist of Casco Bay. Portland: The Gorges Society, 1893.       

Biggar, Henry Percival, ed. The Works of Samuel de Champlain. 6 vols. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1922-36. 

Burrage, Henry S., ed. Rosier's Relation of Waymouth's Voyage to the Coast of Maine, 1605. Portland: The Gorges Society, 1887.          

Burrage, Henry S., ed. Early English and French Voyages Chiefly from Hakluyt. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906.

Collections of the Maine Historical Society, Second Series: Documentary History of the State of  Maine.   24 vols. Portland: The Maine Historical Society, 1869-1916. This set is the single most important source of primary materials on colonial Maine.

Lescarbot, Marc. The History of New France. 1618. Edited by W.L. Grant. 3 vols. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1907-14. Lescarbot was a member of the St. Croix Colony.

Lescarbot, Marc. "The Defeat of the Armouchiquois Savages by Chief Membertou and his Savage Allies," trans. Thomas Goetz. In Papers of the Sixth  Algonquian  Conference,  1974,  Edited by  William   Cowan. National Museum  of  Man Mercury Series, Canadian  Ethnology Paper 23 Ottawa:  National Museums of Canada, 1975.

Morton, Thomas.  The New English Canaan or New  Canaan:   Containing an Abstract of  New  England  Composed  in Three Books. 1637.  Edited     by Charles  Adams.  Boston:  The Prince Society, 1883.

Otis, Charles P., ed.  Voyages of Samuel de Champlain. 2 vols. Boston: The Prince Society, 1880.

Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes. Vol. XIX. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1906.

"Reports of the Country Sir Humphrey Gilbert Goes to Discover." David B. Quinn, ed. The Voyages and Colonizing Enterprises of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. Vol. II. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1940.

Quinn, David B. " The Voyage of Etienne Bellenger to the Maritimes in 1583." Canadian Historical Review XLIII (1962): 328-43. Bellenger may have visited Penobscot Bay.  

Thayer, Henry O., ed. The Sagadahoc Colony. Portland, Maine: The Gorges Society, 1892. Includes the relation of the Sagadahoc Colony's voyage.    

Thwaites, Reuben G., ed.  The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. 73 vols. Cleveland:  Burrows Brothers, 1896-1901. The Jesuits were among the best observers of the Indians of North America, and some of the first explorers of Maine.

Winship, George P., ed. Sailors' Narratives of Voyages Along the New England Coast, 1524-1624. 1905. Reprint. New York: Burt Franklin, 1968. Includes almost all of the surviving explorer accounts from this time. 

 
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SETTLEMENT 

            The student of Maine's settlement is indeed fortunate that the bulk of the early surviving records has been transcribed and published. Since the late nineteenth century
the Maine Historical Society has taken the lead in publishing these primary sources. The Province and Court Records of Maine, a six volume set, includes all the surviving court records from 1636-1727. The companion 18 volume set, York Deeds, includes land transactions for Maine from 1636-1737.

            Many other papers, drawn from the Massachusetts archives and other official repositories in New England and Europe, are published in the twenty-four volume set, the Documentary History of the State of  Maine. This monumental work, primarily edited by James Phinney Baxter, is the most encompassing primary source for the study of early Maine. While most of the Documentary series is official correspondence and papers, volume three, The Trelawney Papers, provides a more personal look at life in early Maine. The papers are the correspondence of John Winter, the agent for the fishing station on Richmond Island. His letters provide details of the day to day life of people on the coast of Maine.

            The Letters of Thomas Gorges, edited by Robert Moody, is a set of eighty letters written by the Lieutenant Governor of Maine which are contemporary with the Trelawney Papers. Gorges wrote of the many trials he faced in York as he tried to organize the government of the Province of Maine. While Gorges and Winter are full of personal insights, only John Josselyn published an account of his experiences in early Maine. Josselyn's  "An  Account  of  Two  Voyages  to  New  England" summarizes his experiences of two trips to Maine in 1636 and between 1668 and 1672. Josselyn describes the native Indians and the  English settlers, as well as the flora and fauna of Maine.

            Some of the most interesting sources on early Maine are the histories of King Philip's War in Maine, and King William's War. William Hubbard's  The History of the Indian Wars  in  New  England (1677) is one of the best sources not only for King Philip's War, but also for examining Anglo-Indian relations. Cotton Mather's  Magnalia Christi Americana provides similar information for King William's War. While both Hubbard and Mather are clearly biased in favor of the English, these accounts are worthy of close attention.

            While many of the documents and accounts of early Maine have been published, several repositories still contain sizable collections of unpublished materials which the serious scholar will want to consult. The largest collection of early Maine materials is located in the Massachusetts Archives, in Boston. The Public Archives of Canada, in Ottawa, holds copies of documents from French Archives relating to New France, including Acadia. In state, the Maine State Archives, Maine State Library, and the Maine Historical Society all contain important materials. Many other repositories contain  small docment collections. Those interested in locating specific manuscripts should consult Elizabeth Ring's authoritative work, A Reference List of Manuscripts Relating to the History of Maine.   

 

Baxter, James P., ed. Sir Ferdinando Gorges and His Province of Maine. 3 vols. Boston: The Prince Society, 1890.       

Boulton, Nathaniel, ed. Documents and Records Relating to the Province of New Hampshire. Vol. I. Concord, N.H.: George E. Jenks, State Printer, 1867. 

Bradford, William. History of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647.  2 Vols. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1912. Includes details of the Plymouth Colony's activities in Maine.

Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation.  ed.   by  Samuel  E. Morison.  New York:  Alfred A.  Knopf, 1952.

Church, Thomas.  The History of Philip's War,  Commonly  called  the Great Indian  War,  of 1675 and 1676.  Edited by Samuel G.  Drake.  2nd ed.  Exeter, New Hampshire:  J.  & B.  Williams, 1829. 

Collections of the Maine Historical Society, Second Series: Documentary History of the State of  Maine.   24 vols. Portland: The Maine Historical Society, 1869-1916.  This set is the single most important source of primary materials on colonial Maine.

Denys, Nicholas.  The Description and Natural History of the  Coasts of North  America  (Acadia).  ed. and trans. by William  F.  Ganong.  Toronto: Champlain Society, 1908.

Hubbard, William.  The History of the Indian Wars  in  New  England. 1677. Edited by Samuel G.  Drake. Roxbury, Mass.: W. Eliot Woodward, 1865. New York:  Burt Franklin, 1971.  A detailed account of King Philip's War in Maine.

Josselyn, John.   "An  Account  of  Two  Voyages  to  New  England." Mssachusetts  Historical  Society, Collections, 3d Ser., III (1833). Josselyn visted Maine in 1636 and again between 1668 and 1672. Strong on details about the native flora and fauna.

Libby, Charles T., Robert E. Moody, and  Neal  W. Allen, Jr.   Province and Court Records of Maine.  6 vols.  Portland:  Maine Historical Society, 1928-1975.

Lindholdt, Paul J., ed. John Josselyn, Colonial Traveler: A Critical Edition of . Hanover: University Press of New England, 1988.

Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi Americana. 1701. Edited by Thomas Robbins. Hartford: Silas Andrus & Son, 1853.

Maverick, Samuel. "An Account of New England." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society  2d Ser., I (1885): 231-49.     

Moody, Robert E., ed.  The  Letters  of  Thomas  Gorges.   Portland: Maine Historical Society, 1978. Thomas Gorges, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Maine from 1640-1642, wrote over eighty letters to England, describing his life and activities in the colony.

Ring, Elizabeth, ed. A Reference List of Manuscripts Relating to the History of Maine, Compiled under the Auspices of the Department of History and Government of the University of Maine with Funds Provided by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. 3 vols. University of Maine Studies, 2nd. Ser., No. 45. Orono: University Press, 1938-41.  

Shurtleff, Nathaniel B., ed.  Records of the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in New  England. 5 vols.  Boston:   Press  of  William White, 1853.         

Shurtleff, Nathaniel B., ed. Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England. 10 vols. in 11 books. Boston:  Press of William White, 1855.

Thayer, Henry O., ed. The Sagadahoc Colony. Portland, Maine: The Gorges Society, 1892. Includes the relation of the Sagadahoc Colony.

Winthrop, John. History of New England. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1908.
While Winthrop's history is focused on activities in southern New England, he does occasionally mention affairs in Maine.

York Deeds. 18  vols. Portland: Maine Historical Society, 1887-1911. A transcription of the deeds from 1636-1737. Before 1760, all of Maine was part of York County.


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III.  SPECIAL TOPICS

PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY

            Native Americans have a long tradition in Maine. Approximately eleven thousand years ago the first paleoindians ventured North into the region, as the glaciers retreated. Since that time, a series of native cultures have occupied Maine.

            Archaeologists have  been active in Maine for approximately 100 years; however, the overwhelming majority of professional research in the field has taken place within the past twenty years. This time has seen the growth of a professional community that has taken rapid strides to unravel the mysteries of Maine's prehistoric past. The following list presents only a small sample of some of the more available works on Maine prehistory. In addition to these references, the reader is directed to the Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin, which contains a variety of articles on the topic. Many papers on Maine prehistory are also published in Man in the Northeast. Arthur Spiess' "A Bibliography of Maine Prehistory through 1981" is a good compilation of sources in Maine prehistory.

Borstel, Christopher L. Archaeological Investigations at the Young Site, Alton, Maine. Occasional Publications in Maine Archaeology, 2. Augusta, Maine: Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1982.

Bourque, Bruce J.  and Steven L.   Cox.   "The  Maine  State  Museum Investigation of  the Goddard Site, 1979."  Man in the Northeast XXII (1981): 3-27. A summary of excavations at a late ceramic period Indian village where a Norse silver penny was discovered.

Bourque, Bruce J. "The Turner Farm Site: A Preliminary Report." Man in the Northeast XI (1976): 21-30.

Bourque, Bruce J. "Aboriginal Settlement and Subsistence on the Maine Coast." Man in the Northeast VI (1973): 3-20.

Bourque, Bruce J.  "Prehistory of the Central Maine  Coast."   Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1971.

Cook, David. Above the Gravel Bar: The Indian Canoe Routes of Maine. Milo: Published by the Author, 1985.

Cox, Steven L. "The Blue Hill Bay Survey." Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin XXIII, No. 2 (1983): 21-30.

Gramley, Richard Michael.  The Vail Site:  A Paleo-Indian Encampment  in Maine.  Buffalo:  Buffalo Society of Natural  Sciences, 1982.

Moorehead, Warren K. Archaeology of Maine. Andover, Mass.: The Andover Press, 1922. Modern Maine archaeologists are highly critical of Moorehead's methodologies. 

Petersen, James B. and Nathan D. Hamilton. "Early Woodland Ceramic and Perishable Fiber Industries from the Northeast: A Summary and Interpretation." Annals of Carnegie Museum LIII, (1984): 413-446.

Ray, Roger. "The Embden, Maine, Petroglyphs." Maine Historical Society Quarterly XXVII, No. 1 (1987): 14-23.

Sanger, David.    Discovering   Maine's   Archaeological   Heritage.  Augusta:  Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1979. A series of articles on different periods in Maine's prehistory, written primarily by Sanger.

Sanger, David. "Passamaquoddy Bay Prehistory: A Summary." Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin XI, No. 2 (1971): 14-19.   

Snow, Dean. "Rising Sea Level and Prehistoric Cultural Ecology in Northern New England." American Antiquity XXXVII No. 2 (1972): 211-21.

Snow, Dean.  The Archaeology of New England.   New  York:   Academic Press, 1980. Contains useful basic information, although many archaeologists consider Snow's theories and conclusions  to be controversial.

Spiess, Arthur E., Bruce J. Bourque, and Steven L. Cox, "Cultural Compexity in Maritime Cultures: Evidence from Penobscot Bay, Maine." In Nash, Ronald J., ed.  The Evolution of Maritime Cultures  on  the Northeast and  Northwest Coasts  of  America. Publication No. 11. Simon   Fraser University, 1983.  

 Spiess, Arthur E., and Mark Hedden.  Kidder Point and Sears  Island  in Prehistory.  Occasional  Publications  in  Maine  Archaeology, 3.  Augusta, Maine:  Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1983.

 Spiess, Arthur E. "A Bibliography of Maine Prehistory through 1981." Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin XXII, No. 1 (1982): 28-36. 

 Spiess, Arthur E. "A Skeleton in Armor: An Unknown Chapter in Maine Archaeology." Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin XXII, No. 1 (1982): 17-24. 

Tuck, James A. Maritime Provinces Prehistory. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1984. The Maritimes were home to many of the same prehistoric cultures as Maine.

Willoughby, Charles C. Indian Antiquities of the Kennebec Valley. Occasional Publications in  Maine  Archaeology, 1.  Augusta, Maine:  Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1980.

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 NATIVE AMERICANS AND THEIR RELATIONS WITH EUROPEANS


           
In recent years, just as our understanding of Maine prehistory has grown, so too has interest in the Indians of Maine in historic times.  The interaction between the European and native populations in Maine is one of the most important themes of the Age of Discovery. Indian-European relations include such diverse elements as the fur trade, the land trade, missionary activities, diplomatic negotiations, and warfare.

            The interplay of these forces has always been of interest to historians. William Williamson gave much attention to the Indians of Maine in his History of Maine; unfortunately, and uncharacteristically for Williamson, he makes many factual errors in his discussion of the topic. In the mid nineteenth century Samuel Drake published his Book of the Indians and edited an edition of Hubbard's History of the Indian Wars. While today's scholars have found some errors in Drake, his work is still very informative, and quite readable. In the first half of the twentieth century, Frank Speck dominated the ethnography of Maine. Speck did extensive fieldwork with the Penobscots and other tribes throughout North America. He left a huge body of work, including  Penobscot Man:  The Life of a Forest Tribe in Maine.

            In the mid twentieth century, the work of Bernard Hoffman and Fannie Hardy Eckstorm greatly advanced the study of the Indians of Maine. Eckstorm's most notable work is her Indian Place Names of the Penobscot Valley and the Maine Coast. Hoffman challenged Speck's analysis of tribal divisions in early Maine in his  "Souriquois, Etchemin and Kwedish: A Lost Chapter in American Ethnography," and began a debate which continues today.

            Since the 1970s, a series of scholars have begun to restudy and revise the ethnohistory of Maine. Alvin Morrison, Kenneth Morrison, Gordon Day, Bruce Bourque and others have made significant contributions to furthering our understanding of such issues as tribal divisions, the fur trade, acculturation, and Indian-European relations. Today ethnohistory continues to be one of the most vigorous and fruitful areas of study in Maine history.


Baker, Emerson. "Trouble to the Eastward: The Failure of Anglo-Indian Relations in Early Maine." Ph.D. dissertation, College of William and Mary, 1986.

Baker, Emerson. "John Howland's Howling Wilderness: Myth, Reality and Cushnoc." The Kennebec Proprietor III, No. 2 (1986), 4-10.

Baker, Emerson W.  '"A Scratch With a Bear's Paw":  Anglo-Indian Land Deeds in Early Maine.'  Ethnohistory 36 (1989):  235-56.

 Bourque Bruce J., and Ruth H. Whitehead. "Tarrentines and the Introduction of European Trade Goods in the Gulf of Maine." Ethnohistory XXXII            (1986):327-41.

Bourque, Bruce J. "Aboriginal Settlement and Subsistence on the Maine Coast." Man in the Northeast VI (1973): 3-20.

 Bourque, Bruce J. Twelve Thousand Years in Maine. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.

Bourque, Bruce J. “Ethnicity on the Maritime Peninsula, 1600-1759.”  Ethnohistory 36 (1989):  257-84. 

Cowie, Ellen Ruth. "Continuity and Change at Contact-Period Norridgewock." 
Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2002.

Crane, Pamela, “Historical archaeology of Norridgewock Mission,  M.A. thesis, University of Maine, 1997.

Day, Gordon M. The Identity of the Saint Francis Indians Ottawa: National  Museum of
Man
Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service, Paper No. 71. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, 1981.

DePaoli, Neill.   "The  New  England  Settler's  Perception  of  the Amerindian, 1640-89:   A Case Study of the Impact of Conflict and Locale."  M.A.  thesis,
Brown
University
, 1979.

DePaoli, Neill. "Beaver, Blankets, Liquor and Politics: Pemaquid, Maine's Participation in the Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Anglo-Indian Trade." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology, Ottawa, 1985.

Drake, Samuel G. The Book of the Indians. 9th ed. Boston: Benjamin B. Mussey, 1845.         

Eckstorm, Fannie Hardy. Indian Place Names of the Penobscot Valley and the Maine Coast. Orono, Maine: University of Maine Press, 1941. 

Foster, Michael, and William Cowan, William,  eds. In Search of New England's Native Past: Selected Essays by Gordon M. Day. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.

Harrington, Faith. "Sea Tenure in Seventeenth-Century New England: Native Americans and Englishmen in the Sphere of Marine Resources, 1600-1630." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1985.

Height, Horatio. "Mogg Heigon- His Life, Death, and its Sequel," Collections of the
Maine
Historical Society 2nd Ser., V (1895): 345-60; 2nd Ser., VI (1896): 256-80.

Hoffman, Bernard G.  "Souriquois, Etchemin and Kwedish: A Lost Chapter in
American Ethnography." Ethnohistory II (1955): 65-87.

Hornbeek, Billee. "An Investigation into the Cause or Causes of the Epidemic which Decimated the Indian Population of New England 1616-1619."
The New Hampshire Archaeologist
XIX (1977): 35-46.

Leavenworth, Peter S. “’The Best Title that Indians Can Claime’: Native Agency 
and Consent in the Transferral of Penacook-Pawtucket Land in the
Seventeenth Century.” New England Quarterly LXXII (1999): 275-300.

Morrison, Alvin H.  "Dawnland Diaspora: Wabanaki Dynamics for Survival," in
David H. Pentland, ed., Papers of the Twenty-Ninth Algonquian Conference.
Winnepeg: University of Manitoba, 1998, 211-24.

Morrison,  Alvin.     "Membertou's    Raid    on    the    Chouacoet 'Almouchiquois'-
The  Micmac Sack of Saco in 1607."  In Papers of the Sixth  Algonquian
Conference
,  1974.  Edited by  William   Cowan, 141-58.  National Museum
of  Man
Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Paper 23. Ottawa:  National Museums of Canada, 1975.

 Morrison, Alvin.  "Dawnland Decisions:  Seventeenth-Century Wabanaki Leaders
and their Response to Differential Contact Stimuli in the Overlap Area  
of  New   France   and   New   England." Ph.D. dissertation, State University
of  New York, Buffalo, 1974. 

Morrison, Kenneth M. The Embattled Northeast: The Elusive Ideal of Alliance in Abenaki-Euramerican Relations. Los Angeles: University of California
Press, 1985.

Morrison, Kenneth M.  "The Bias of Colonial  Law:   English  Paranoia  and the
Abenaki  Arena  of  King  Philip's War, 1675-1678."  New England Quarterly,
LIII, No. 3 (1980):363-378.

Morrison, Kenneth M.  "The People of the Dawn:  The Abnaki and their Relations
with New England  and  New  France,  1600-1727."   Ph.D.  dissertation,
University
of Maine
, 1975.

Nash, Alice. "The Abiding Frontier: Family, Gender and Religion in Wabanaki History, 1600-1763." Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1997.

Nelson, Eunice. The Wabanaki: An Annotated Bibliography. Cambridge: American Friends Service Committee, 1982.    

Prins, Harald E. L. The Mi'kmaq: Resistance, Accommodation, and Cultural Survival. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1996.

Prins, Harald E. L. "Chief Rawandagon, Alias Robin Hood: Native 'Lord of Misrule' in the Maine Wilderness” in Robert Grumet, ed., Northeastern Indian Lives, 1632-1815. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996, 110-127.

Prins, Harald E. L. “Children of Gluskap: Wabanaki Indians on the Eve of the European Invasion,” in Emerson Baker et al, eds., American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture  and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega. Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press, 1994, 95-117.

Prins, Harald E. L. and Bruce Bourque. "Norridgewock: Village Translocation on the New England-Acadian Frontier." Man in the Northeast XXXIII (1987):

Prins, Harald. "'The Most Convenientest Place for Trade:' A Discussion of the Kenibec/Cushnoc Controversy." The Kennebec Proprietor III, No. I (1986): 4-9. 

Ray, Roger B. "Maine Indians' Concept of Land Tenure." Maine Historical Society Quarterly. XIII, no. 1 (1973): 28-51.

Salisbury, Neal.   Manitou  and  Providence.  New   York:  Oxford  University Press, 1982.

Sevigny, Pere-Andre. Les Abenaquis: Habitat et Migrations (17e et 18e siecles). Montreal:
Les Editions Bellarmin, 1976.

Siebert, Frank. "The Identity of the Tarrantines, with an Etymology." Studies in
Linguistics
XXIII (1973): 69-76. 

Snow, Dean. "The Ethnohistoric Baseline of the Eastern Abenaki." Ethnohistory
XXIII (1976): 291-306.

Spiess, Arthur E., and Bruce D. Spiess. "New England Indian Pandemic of  1616-1622: Cause and Archaeological Implications." Man in the Northeast
XXXIV
(1987): 71-83.

Speck, Frank.  Penobscot Man:  The Life of a Forest Tribe in Maine. Philadelphia:  
University
of Pennsylvania
Press, 1940.

Stewart-Smith, David.  “The Pennacook Indians and the New England Frontier, 1604-1733," Ph.D. dissertation, The Union Institute, 1998.

Thorpe, Daniel.  "Equals of the King: The Balance of Power in Early Acadia."
Acadiensis
XXV (1996): 3-17.

Trigger, Bruce, ed. Handbook of North American Indians. XV. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution, 1978.

Vickery, James B. “Orono: The Great Sachem.”  Maine Historical Society Quarterly  
XXXII (1992): 134-139.

 Whitehead, Ruth H. Elitekey: Micmac Material Culture from 1600 AD to Present. Halifax:
The Nova Scotia Museum, 1980. 


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EXPLORATION & THE POPHAM COLONY

            Few modern Maine historians have focused on the Age of Exploration. One of the best locally-produced efforts is  Henry Burrage's  The  Beginnings  of  Colonial  Maine,  1602-1658. The most recent interpretation of the exploration of Maine is included in the works of Samuel Eliot Morison and David Beers Quinn, the foremost authorities on the exploration of the North Atlantic.    

            The short-lived Popham Colony, perhaps the single most important episode in the early exploration of Maine, received great attention by nineteenth-century researchers. While the Popham Colony had been noted by Sullivan, Williamson, and others, in 1862 the Colony took center stage in Maine history. That year marked the dedication ceremonies of the United States Army Fort Popham, located in Phippsburg near the believed site of the 1607 colony. At the dedication ceremonies, sponsored by the Maine Historical Society, Maine scholars argued strongly that the Popham Colony had not been entirely abandoned in 1608. They suggested that a small settlement remained in the area in the 1610s and 1620s. Hence, the Popham Colony, not Plymouth Colony, was allegedly the first permanent colony in New England.

            Not surprisingly, Massachusetts historians took exception to this undocumented claim, and a fierce scholarly debate ensued. Within six years, a total of ninety-eight pamphlets and articles appeared arguing the Popham and Plymouth sides of the debate. Three books bring together many of these arguments. First, in 1862 John A. Poor published Vindication of the Claims of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. The next year Edward Ballard, Secretary of the Maine Historical Society, edited a transcript of the dedication ceremonies entitled Memorial Volume of the Popham Celebration, August 29, 1862. Finally, 1866 saw the publication of The Popham Colony; a Discussion of its Historical Claims, with a Bibliography of the Subject. By the early twentieth century, research in English archives had produced ample evidence to determine that the Popham Colony had indeed been completely abandoned in 1608, and the lengthy debate came to an end.  

            The late nineteenth and early twentieth century exploration scholarship was dominated by James P. Baxter, Henry O. Thayer, Henry Burrage, and Charles Banks,  all meticulous scholars who grounded their research in detailed studies of the existing primary sources.  These men published many important articles in various journals. One such journal was volume two of the second series of the Collections of the Maine Historical Society, an issue dedicated largely to the topic of exploration. Published in 1906, the volume contains many essays celebrating the tercentenary of the voyages of Martin Pring, George Waymouth, and the settlement of the St. Croix Colony. Baxter, Thayer, and Burrage all contributed to the volume.  The most encompassing work on the topic is Henry Burrage's excellent Beginnings of Colonial Maine, 1602-1658. Relatively little research has been done on exploration by Maine historians since these early twentieth century efforts.  In the 1970s Edwin Churchill did revise one popular misconception of the exploration of Maine in his research on the early fishing industry.  Many previous historians had suggested that fishermen had been in Maine long before 1600, possibly even before Columbus "discovered" the new world. However, Churchill found no evidence for such early visits and determined that European fishermen began working on the coast of
Maine
only in the 1610s. 

            Since little research has been done on the age of exploration by Maine scholars, the most current information on the topic can be found in the general works on the discovery
of North America by David Quinn and  Samuel E. Morison.  


Ballard, Edward. Memorial Volume of the Popham Celebration, August 29, 1862. Portland:
Bailey and Noyes, 1863.   

Baxter, James P. "Christopher Levett, the First Owner of Soil in Portland." Collections of the Maine Historical Society. Ser. 2, IV (1893):169-185, 301-320.

Bradley, Robert L."The European Exploration and Settlement of Maine." Unpublished manuscript in possession of the author, 1985.

Brain, Jeffery P. The Popham Colony: An Historical and Archaeological Brief. 
Salem
: Peabody Essex Museum, 2001.

Burrage, Henry S.  The  Beginnings  of  Colonial  Maine,  1602-1658. Portland:  Marks Printing House, 1914.

Cave, Alfred A. “Why was the Sagadahoc Colony Abandoned? An Evaluation of the 
Evidence.” New England Quarterly LXVIII (1995): 625-640.

Churchill, Edwin A. "The Founding of Maine, 1600-1640: A Revisionist Interpretation." Maine Historical Society Quarterly XVIII (1978): 21-54.

Folson, George. Address Delivered on the Site of the Popham Colony, near the Mouth of the Kennebec in New England, before the Maine Historical Society, on the twenty-eight of
August, 1863
. Ventnor, Isle of Wight: Fletcher Moore, 1866.

Gilchrist, John H. Latitude Errors and the New England Voyages of Pring and 
Waymouth. American Neptune L (1990): 5-17.

Moody, Robert  Earle.   "The  Maine  Frontier,   1607-1763."    Ph.D.  dissertation, Yale University, 1933.

Morison, Samuel E. The European Discovery of America: The Northern VoyagesNew York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Poor, John A.  Vindication of the Claims of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. New York:
D. Appleton and Co., 1862.

The Popham Colony; a Discussion of its Historical Claims, with a Bibliography of the Subject.
Boston
: J.K. Wiggin and Lunt, 1866. Includes several opinions in the
Popham debate, including Edward Ballard's.  

Quinn, David B. North America from Earliest Discovery to European Settlements. New York: Harper & Row, 1977. 

Salisbury, Neal.   Manitou  and  Providence.  New   York:  Oxford  University Press, 1982.

Spencer, Wilbur, D. Pioneers on Maine Rivers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
Inc., 1973 (orig. publ. 1930).

Thayer, Henry O. The Sagadahoc Colony. Portland, 1892.           


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ENGLISH SETTLEMENT

            Maine had barely left the colonial period in 1795 when James Sullivan published
the first book on the subject, History of the District of Maine. Since Sullivan's initial, and often inaccurate efforts, many scholars have turned their talents to understanding diverse
aspects of early Maine's history.

            While Sullivan was the first Maine historian, William D. Williamson stands as the most important early scholar of the region. Williamson's two volume History of the State of Maine (1832) remains even today as one of the most detailed histories of colonial Maine. Unfortunately, not all of Williamson's contemporaries held his high standards. Rufus Sewall's Ancient Dominions of Maine (1859) unnecessarily shrouded Maine's history in romantic myths of ancient civilizations and precolumbian explorers inhabiting Maine. What Sewall and others claimed were "Vinland" and "Norumbega" had correctly been identified by Williamson as cellarholes and other physical remains of seventeenth-century Maine.

            The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were productive times for the historians of colonial Maine. Such major scholars as  James P. Baxter, Henry O. Thayer, Charles Libby, Charles Banks, and others were responsible for bringing together our present wealth of primary documents. While these men devoted themselves to gathering data, they also produced some important books and papers. However, the single most important book on early Maine published in this era was written by Henry Burrage. In 1914 the eminent State Historian brought  much of this  past research and articles together in a major monograph, The Beginnings of Colonial Maine, 1602-1658. To this day, Burrage's work remains an important reference book.

            Few secondary sources on early Maine appeared in print for over fifty years following The Beginnings of Colonial Maine. While the study of early Maine entered a "dark age," there were several breakthroughs in the 1930s.  In 1933 Robert Moody completed his excellent dissertation,   "The  Maine  Frontier,   1607-1763," but it was never published. The 1930s also saw the publication of a most important source, The Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire. This huge effort, undertaken by Sybil Noyes, Charles T. Libby, and Walter G. Davis includes references for everyone known to have lived in the two colonies in the seventeenth-century. While strictly speaking a genealogical source, the authors combed New England archives for documents, making the volume a vital reference work for any researcher of the period.

            The study of seventeenth-century Maine entered an exciting new era in 1970 with
the publication of Charles Clark's  The  Eastern  Frontier: The Settlement of Northern New England, 1610-1763. Departing from the traditional political history format, Clark was the first to study Maine and New Hampshire from the perspective of the new social history. Subsequent to Clark's work, numerous historians undertook studies of specialized
aspects of early Maine. These scholars utilized an array of interdisciplinary approaches to better understand early Maine's social, political, and economic climate.  For example, Edwin Churchill drew on community studies as well as climate history in his case study of the early years of the settlement of Casco Bay. 

            Other historians also found fruitful avenues of research in early Maine studies. Laurel Ulrich, a student of Clark's, explored women's history in   Good Wives:  Images and Reality in the  Lives  of Women in Northern  New England, 1650-1750 (1982). John Reid's two monographs examined the political environment of Maine, and its marginal nature as a colony. Reid provided an important comparison between the Province of Maine and its northern neighbors, Acadia and New Scotland.

            Other researchers utilized historical archaeology to provide many of the details of  daily life in Maine which escape the documentary record. Historical archaeology in
Maine
truly began in the 1960s, when excavations commenced at Pemaquid under the direction of Helen Camp. Excavations continued at Pemaquid until the early 1980s, with Camp and Robert Bradley overseeing work on the colonial settlement and its
fortifications. Few objects survive from Maine in the age of discovery except for those excavated from archaeological sites. Colonial Pemaquid State Park, one of the largest repositories of these artifacts, includes a museum where the public may view Maine's material past.

            Most of Maine's historical archaeologists have been trained at Pemaquid, or under Alaric Faulkner at the University of Maine. Faulkner has been active in Maine since the
late 1970s, working principally on the English fishing station on Damariscove Island, and the French fortress of Pentagoet (in present-day Castine).

          

Baker, Emerson W. The Clarke & Lake Company: The Historical Archaeology of A Seventeenth-Century Maine Settlement. Occasional  Publications  in  Maine 
Archaeology, 4.  Augusta, Maine:  Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1985.

 

Baker, William A. A Maritime History of Bath, Maine and the KennebecRegion. Bath, Maine:
Marine Research Society of Bath, 1973. 

Banks, Charles E. "The Pirate of Pemaquid." Maine Historical and Genealogical Recorder I,
(1884): 57-61.

Banks, Charles E. History of York, Maine. 2 vols. Boston: The Calkins Press, 1931.

Bradstreet, Theodore E. "Agry's Point Status Report." Maine Archaeological Society
Bulletin
XXI, No. 1 (1981): 13-27.

Burrage, Henry S.  The  Beginnings  of  Colonial  Maine,  1602-1658. Portland:  Marks
Printing House, 1914.         

Camp, Helen, Archaeological Excavations at Pemaquid, Maine 1965-1974.  Augusta, Maine: 
The Maine State Museum, 1975.

Camp, Helen. "Makers' Marks on White Clay Pipes from Colonial Pemaquid." Maine Archaeological  Society Bulletin XXII, No. 2 (1982): 24-40.

Cass, Edward. "Settlement on the Kennebec, 1600-1650." M.A. thesis,
University
of Maine
, 1970. 

Chu, Jonathan.  Neighbors, Friends or Madmen: The Puritan Adjustment to Quakers in Seventeenth-Century Massachusetts Bay. Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Churchill, Edwin A. "A Most Ordinary Lot of Men: The Fishermen at Richmond  
Island
, Maine
in the Early Seventeenth Century." New England Quarterly
LVII, No. 2 (1984): 184-204.

Churchill, Edwin A. "The Founding of Maine, 1600-1640: A Revisionist Interpretation."
Maine
Historical Society Quarterly XVIII (1978): 21-54.

Churchill, Edwin A.  "Too Great the Challenge:  The Birth and  Death of Falmouth, 
Maine
, 1624-1676."  Ph.D.  dissertation, University of Maine, 1979.         

Clark, Charles E.  The  Eastern  Frontier: The Settlement of Northern New England, 1610-1763.   New  York:  Alfred  A. Knopf, 1970. 

Clark, Charles, E. The Founding of Maine, 1600-1640: A Comment."  Maine
Historical Society Quarterly
XVIII (1978): 55-62.

Elwell, Eben."A New Look at Early Pilgrim Activity at 'Kenibec.'" The Mayflower
Quarterly
XLVII, No. 2 (1981): 57-65.

Faulkner, Alaric. "Archaeology of the Cod Fishery." Historical Archaeology XIX, No. 2 (1985): 57-86. 

Folsom, George. History of Saco and Biddeford. 1830. Reprint. Portland, Maine: Maine Historical Society, 1975.

Griffin, Carl R., III, and Alaric Faulkner, "Coming of Age on Damariscove Island." Northeast Folklore XXXI, 1980.

Harrington, Faith. "Sea Tenure in Seventeenth-Century New England: Native Americans and Englishmen in the Sphere of Marine Resources, 1600-1630." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1985.

Leamon, James S. "Historians in the Woods: Historical Archaeology at the Clarke
& Lake Site, Arrowsic, Maine." In New England Historical Archaeology. Edited
by Peter Benes, 16-23. Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, Annual
Proceedings, II. Boston: Boston University Press, 1978.

Moody, Robert  Earle.   "The  Maine  Frontier,   1607-1763."    Ph.D.  dissertation, Yale University, 1933.

Moorehead, Warren K. "The Ancient Remains at Pemaquid, Maine: Some Observations."  
Old Time New England
, XIV (1924): 131-42.         

Noyes, Sybil, Charles T. Libby, and Walter G. Davis.  Genealogical Dictionary of  Maine and New Hampshire.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Company, 1979 (orig. publ. 1928-1939).

Ranlet, Philip. "The Lord of Misrule:  Thomas Morton of Merrymount." New England Historical Genealogical Register CXXXIV (1980): 283-88.

Reid, John G.  Acadia, Maine and New Scotland: Marginal Colonies in the Seventeenth Century.  Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1981.

Reid, John G.  Maine, Charles II, and Massachusetts: Governmental Relations in Early Northern New England. Portland, Maine: Maine Historical Society, 1977.

Sewall, Rufus. Ancient Dominions of Maine. Bath, Maine: Elisha Clark and Company, 1859.

Spencer, Wilbur, D. Pioneers on Maine Rivers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1973 (orig. publ. 1930).

Sullivan, James. History of the District of Maine.1795. Reprint, Portland, Maine: Maine 
Historical Society, 1978.

Ulrich, Laurel T.  Good Wives:  Images and Reality in the  Lives  of Women in Northern  New England, 1650-1750.  New York:  Alfred A.  Knopf, 1982.

Williamson, William D.  History of the State of  Maine.   Hallowell, Maine:  Glazier and Masters, 1832.       

Yentsch, Anne. "Expressions of Cultural Variation in Seventeenth-Century Maine and Massachusetts. Albert E. Ward, ed. Archaeological Perspectives on American History. Contributions to Anthropological Studies, III. Alburquerque, N.M.: Center for Anthropological Studies, 1984, 117-131.


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THE FRENCH

            The French claimed and occupied northern Maine for much of the seventeenth century, establishing a presence in 1604, with the St. Croix colony. Unfortunately, the French in Maine have never received as much attention from historians as have the
English. In the nineteenth-century few efforts were made to understand the French
presence in Maine, other than those of George Wheeler. Wheeler was the local historian
in Castine, the center of French activity in seventeenth-century Maine. While the French made some brief attempts at settlement and missionary activity in Maine after the failure
of the St. Croix Colony, it was not until Pentagoet was occupied in 1635 that the French established a permanent base in Maine. The  stone fortress of Pentagoet was destroyed by Dutch raiders in 1674, however the French presence in the region was soon reestablished
by Baron Saint-Castin. The Baron became a firm ally of the Indians of the region, and he
and his family played important roles in the frontier wars of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

            Aside from the work of Wheeler and several other turn-of-the-century  historical
and archaeological efforts focused on Pentagoet, relatively little research was done on Acadian Maine until the late 1960s. In 1968 Andrew Clark published Acadia, an historical geography of the region. Archaeological excavations of the St. Croix Colony site were carried out by Jacob Gruber in 1968 and 1969, unfortunately, little has been published on this site. Clark's and Gruber's efforts were followed closely by  George Rawlyk's Nova Scotia's Massachusetts: A Study of Massachusetts- Nova Scotia Relations, 1630 to 1784 (1973).

            Several recent works have provided even knowledge about the social and political atmosphere of Acadian Maine. John Reid's  Acadia, Maine and New Scotland: Marginal Colonies in the Seventeenth Century (1981) is a detailed study in comparative history which examines the lack of success of three neighboring colonies. Reid's book was published the same year that Alaric and Gretchen Faulkner began their archaeological investigation of Fort Pentagoet. Four seasons of excavation, combined with painstaking research, have produced spectacular results. The Faulkners' publications, including a series of articles
and the major monograph, The French at Pentagoet, 1635-1674: An Archaeological Portrait of the Acadian Frontier, have finally begun to give the Acadian presence its proper place in early Maine history.    

Burrage, Henry S.  The  Beginnings  of  Colonial  Maine,  1602-1658. Portland: Marks
Printing House, 1914.

Crist, Thomas A. J. "Scurvy, the Skeleton, and Samuel de Champlain: A 
Bioarchaeological Investigation of Vitamin C Deficiency."
Ph.D. diss., Temple University, 1998.

Clark, Andrew Hill. Acadia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.

Cotter, John L. "Les Premiers etablissements francais en Acadie: Sainte-Croix et Port
Royal
." Dossiers de L'archeologie, no. 27, 1978.

Daigle, Jean.  'Nos amis les ennemis:  relations commerciales de l'Acadie avec le Massachusetts, 1670-1711.'  Ph.D. diss., University of Maine, 1975.

Faulkner, Alaric. "Pentagoet: A First Look at Seventeenth-Century Acadian Maine." Northeast Historical  Archaeology X (1981): 51-57.

Faulkner, Alaric, and Gretchen F. Faulkner. "The Settlement of Acadian Maine in Archaeological Perspective."  Northeast Hisorical  Archaeology XIV (1981): 1-20.

Faulkner, Alaric, and Gretchen F. Faulkner. The French at Pentagoet, 1635-1674: An Archaeological Portrait of the Acadian Frontier. Augusta: The Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1987. 

Faulkner, Alaric. “Gentility on the Frontiers of Acadia, 1635-1674: An Archaeological 
Perspective.”  Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. Annual Proceedings
XIV (1989): 82-100.

Leach, Douglas. "The Question of French Involvement in King Philip's War."
Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts
. XXXVIII (1953): 414- 21.

MacDonald, M.A. Fortune and LaTour: The Civil War in Acadia. Toronto: Methuen, 1983.

MacDonald, M.A. Fortune and LaTour: The Civil War in Acadia. Toronto: Methuen, 1983.

Parkman, Francis. Pioneers of France in the New World. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1865. While Parkman's historical analyses and interpretations are outdated, his powerful writing style makes his narratives highly readable.  

Rawlyk, George A. Nova Scotia's Massachusetts: A Study of Massachusetts-Nova Scotia
Relations, 1630 to 1784
. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University, 1973.

Reid, John G.  Acadia, Maine and New Scotland: Marginal Colonies in the Seventeenth Century.  Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1981.

Wheeler, George A. History of Castine, Penobscot and Brooksville. Bangor: Burr and Robinson, 1875.

Wheeler, George A. "Fort Pentagoet and the French Occupation of Castine." Collections of the Maine Historical Society. Ser. 2, IV (1893): 113-23.

Williamson, William D.  History of the State of  Maine. Hallowell, Maine: Glazier and Masters, 1832.    

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COMMERCE AND TRADE (INCLUDING THE FUR TRADE)

Carroll, Charles E. The Timber Economy of Puritan New England. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1973.

Cranmer, Leon E. Cushnoc: The History and Archaeology of Plymouth Colony Traders 
on the Kennebec
. Occasional Publications in Maine Archaeology,
No. 7. Augusta, Maine: Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1990).

DePaoli, Neill.  'Beaver, Blankets, Liquor, and Politics:  Pemaquid's Fur Trade,
1614-1760. ' Maine Historical Society Quarterly 33 (1993-94):  166-201.

DePaoli, Neill. "Life on the Edge: Community and Trade on the Anglo-American 
Periphery, Pemaquid, Maine, 1610-1689." Ph.D. diss.,
University of New Hampshire 2001.

Klinge, David F., “The Richard Foxwell House: The Archaeological Footprint of a Marginal Trader, 1633-1636." M.A. thesis., University of Maine, 2001.

Manross, Brooke Ann, "’The Freedom of Commerce’ : The History and Archaeology
of Trade at St. Castin's habitation 1670-1701
. M.A. thesis,
University
of Maine
,  1994.

Roberts, William  I.,  "The  Fur  Trade  of  New  England   in   the Seventeenth   Century."   Ph.D.   dissertation,   University   of Pennsylvania, 1958.

Rumsey, Barbara. “Waldron vs. Smith: Shipwreck at the Eastward, 1671.”  
Maine
History XXXIX, (2000)39: 68-93.
 

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FRONTIER WARFARE AND DIPLOMACY

Baker, Emerson W. and Reid, John G. The New England Knight: Sir William Phips, 1651-1695. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Baker, Emerson W. and Kences, James. “Maine, Indian Land Speculation, and the 
Essex County Witchcraft Outbreak of 1692.”  Maine History 2001 40(3): 158-189.

Baker, Emerson W. and Reid, John G. “Amerindian Power in the Early Modern 
Northeast: A Reappraisal.” William and Mary Quarterly  LXI (2004):  77-106.
Bangs, Jeremy Dupertuis. “John Rhoades and the Capture of Fort Pentagoet.”
 New England Historical and Genealogical Register.
2003 157(Jan): 53-57.

Bradley, Robert  and Camp, Helen B.  The Forts of Pemaquid, Maine: An Archaeological and Historical Study.  Augusta:  Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1994.

Eames, Steven C.  'Rustic Warriors: Warfare and the Provincial Soldier on the Northern Frontier, 1689-1748.'  Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Hampshire, 1989 

Kences, James.  'Some Unexplored Relationships of Essex County Witchcraft to the Indian Wars of 1675 and 1689.'  Essex Institute Historical Collections 120 (1984):  181-211

Norton, Mary Beth.  In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.

Norton, Mary Beth. “George Burrough and the Girls form Casco: 
The Maine Roots of Salem Witchcraft.” Maine History XL (2001): 258-277.
Norton, Mary Beth. “The Refugee’s Revenge.”  Common-Place 2002 2(3). 
http://www.common-place.org/vol-02/no-03/>


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ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE

Baker, Emerson W. Bradley, Robert L., Cranmer, Leon, and DePaoli, Neill. 'Earthfast Architecture in Early Maine.'  Paper presented at Vernacular Architecture Forum Annual Meeting, 1993.  

Bradley, Robert L. Maine's First Buildings, The Architecture of Settlement, 1604-1700. Augusta, Maine: Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 1978.

Candee, Richard M. "Wooden Buildings in Early Maine and New Hampshire: 
A Technological and Cultural History, 1600-1720." Ph.D. diss.,
U.
of Pennsylvania
, 1976.
Candee, Richard M. “Merchant and Millwright: The Water Powered Sawmills 
of the Piscataqua.” Old-Time New England 1970 60(4): 131-149.
Candee, Richard M. “The First-Period Architecture in Maine and New Hampshire: 
The Evidence of Probate Inventories.” Dublin Seminar for New England
Folklife. Annual Proceedings,  1987 12: 97-120.

Morrison, Peter H. Architecture of the Popham Colony, 1607-1608 : an archaeological portrait of English building practice at the moment of settlement Publisher 2002.

Taylor, Gavin James. "Ruled with a Pen: Land, Language, and the Invention of Maine." 
Ph.D. diss., College of William and Mary 2000.


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VIDEO

Home: The Story of Maine. Three episodes of this long running Maine Public 
Broadcasting series dedicated to early Maine premiered in 2003 and 2004.
People of the Dawn” Program 8 (2003)
Rolling Back the Frontier” Program 9 (2003)
The Frontier Wars” Program 10 (2004)

Colonial House. This eight-part PBS series premiered in May 2004. 
Filmed in Machiasport, the series observes the experience of a group
of present-day people who spend four months recreating the lives of
 the first settlers of Maine in the 1620s.
Quest. Episode #201, “Maine Digs” includes interviews and scenes from excavations 
of seventeenth-century sites in Maine.

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WEB SITES

Davistown Museum.   This website brings together many 
different references on early Maine.
Maine Historical Society. This site includes the Maine Memory Network, an on-line 
museum, with access to many objects and documents at the society,
and other Maine museums.  

 Massachusetts State Archives Index of Native Americans This resource transcribes 
every index card on Native Americans at the Massachusetts Archives, including
the Wabanaki of Maine.
Osher Map Library. This University of Southern Maine Library is one of 
the finest map libraries in the country. The site contains educational
resources, and on-line exhibits. The exhibit “The Cartographic Creation
of New England
” contains many important early maps of Maine.
Sebago-Presumptscot Anthropology Project. Alvin Morrison’s web site contains 
invaluable information on the Wabanaki and their relations to Europeans
in early Maine.


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