Seminar in Early American History  - HIS 912-S1

Witchcraft, Magic, and Popular Culture in Early New England


Department of History – Spring 2006

Wednesday 7:00 SB 105A



                                                            Who will go down to the shady groves

                                                            And summon the shadows there

                                                            And tie a ribbon on those sheltering arms

                                                            In the springtime of the year?

                                                                                                            Loreena McKennitt

                                                                                                            The Mummers' Dance


                                                            The most important thing is how much

                                                            you learn after you already know it all.

                                                                                                            Earl Weaver



Professor Emerson Baker                                                       




The seminar will intensively examine the topic of witchcraft, magic, and popular culture in early New England.  Since the 1970s, this topic has become one of intense historical interest, as scholars try to weave their own scholarly interests into the historiography. The course will examine these different schools of history, as well as the way the famous Essex County Witchcraft outbreak of 1692 is perceived by the public today.  


Course Objectives


The course will give you a detailed understanding of the early New England society, in particular, the aspects of that society related to witchcraft, magic, and popular culture. We will examine a range of topics in historiographic perspective, including: puritanism, women's history, ethnohistory, psychohistory, and community studies. In addition to these content objectives, in this course you will have the opportunity to  develop skills necessary for the historian: critical reading, thinking, writing, and discussing history.


Course Requirements


1. Required Reading: In addition to those texts available at the college bookstore, a series of assigned readings will be available on line.   


2. Class Participation: This seminar requires active participation by all, for the basis for the class is group discussion of the readings. Every week two students will lead class discussion, so the leaders need to come to class particularly well prepared.     


3. Written assignments. The focus on this class is class discussion, however you will also have a chance to practice your craft as a writer of history in four brief assignments

- a 500 word review of two different books read during the semester (your choice of books)

- a critical review of two different web sites related to the course

- a review of a media event (movie or exhibit) which interprets the Essex County Witchcraft outbreak of 1692.


Course Grade


Web Review                                                   10%     (Due on February 22) 

Book Reviews - 10% each                             20%     (Due by May 3)

Media Review                                                 15%     (Due on May 10)

Class Participation/ Leading Discussions       55%      


Instructions for all written assignments

These are meant to be brief written pieces. The book reviews are a maximum of 500 words. The web review should not exceed 750 words, and the media review should be 1000 words at the most.

All written work is to be typed (or word processed) and double spaced, with one inch margins. Although this is not an English class, your spelling and grammar do matter a great deal, for the better you communicate your historical thoughts, the better I can evaluate them. If you use citations in your work, it is to be noted in historical  citation style, with footnotes or end notes, as indicated in the Chicago Manual of Style of Turabian. Remember, using the quotes or even the ideas of others without proper citation is plagarism. If you have questions about citation style, please ask. Papers not handed in during class on the due date are considered late, and will be marked down. The later they are, the more they will be marked down.


Book Reviews


You will write two 500 word book reviews on two books of your choice that we have read in the course. They are due by May third, but can be written and handed in any time.  I will hand out some sample book reviews from scholarly journals, to give an idea of what comprises a good review. Remember, you are writing for a scholarly audience. They will want to know what the book is about, how it fits into the literature, and what the strengths and weaknesses of the book are. That is a lot to squeeze into 550 words.


Media Review


This assignment is similar to a book review, only you have 100 words, and are reviewing either a video or museum that focuses on witchcraft in Salem. Please confirm you choice with me.





Salem State College is committed to nondiscrimination of Handicapped persons as specified in section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Students who qualify as handicapped persons under the definition of this act should notify the instructor at the beginning of course so that reasonable modifications may be made when necessary.
















History 912 Web Review:   How to assess a web site


Your task is to go on-line on the World Wide Web and to write a detailed critique two web sites that cover the topic of history and witchcraft.  Take sometime to check out a variety of sites, and find one that you like, and one that you are less fond of. In your reviews, be sure to give the site name, address, a general description of the content, and your editorial comments (why the site was effective or not, whether the information was accurate, how useful was it to our course, etc). Be sure to be critical in your analysis. Please try to pick a site that is large enough to really say something about. The assignment is due in class on February 22, approximately 750 words in length. Specifically, your review should address the following for both web sites:



What is the authority of the site?

            .edu – educational

            .org –  tends to be non-profit organization

            .com – commercial

            .net – network, also commercial

            .gov - government


How credible is the site?

Can you tell who is responsible for the site? Who hosts it?

Is it a personal page, or an organization’s page?

Does it give full names, and contact information?


What is the purpose of the site? Why was it created?


How current is the site information?

            Can you tell when it was last updated?

            Do site links work?


What accurate is the site?

            Does it cite its sources?

            Does it have a bibliography, or other print sources?

            Are there typos or grammatical errors?


What do other people think of the site?

Has it won any awards?

 Is it reviewed by sites like the Merlot Project (  or Scout Report ( ?

            How many sites link to it? (Go to google and type “link:” and the url).


Site Appearance and Layout

Is the site well organized? 

            Are there navigation markers throughout?

            Can you easily determine where the information you want is?

Does it have an effective front page? Does it provide a good site summary?

            Does it attract your attention?


Is the site visually appealing?

            Does it make sensible use of graphics? Does it have excessive “noise”?

            Does it load in reasonable time? Does it have consistency of design?




I.  Course Outline - His 912   Fall 1998 - subject to change - please keep current

"a." readings will form the basis for class discussion for the week and are required

"b." readings are related materials that discussion leaders may want to consult, and are in general there to whet your appetites as they develop.


Jan. 25  - Introduction to the Course


Feb. 1 -  Origins: Witchcraft in Early Modern England and Europe

a. Levack, Brian Levack,  The Witch-hunt in Early Modern Europe. London and New York:        

            Longman, 1987.

b. Keith Thomas,   Religion and the Decline of Magic.  New York:  Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971.

David D. Hall, " Review: Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation " NEQ 58, (1985): 253-81.


Feb. 8 – Popular Religion in Puritan New England. 

a. David D. Hall, Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

b. Stephen Foster, The Long Argument: English Puritanism and the Shaping of New England Culture, 1570–1700.  Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina University Press, 1991, particularly chapter 6, pp. 231-85.


Feb. 15 -  Popular Culture in Early New England

a. Bruce C. Daniels, Puritans at Play: Leisure and Recreation in Colonial New England. New York: Saint Martin's Press, 1995.

b. Peter Burke, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe. New York: Harper and Row, 1978.


Feb 22  -  The Social Context of Witchcraft in Early New England

a. John P. Demos, Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1982, Parts I and II (p. 1 to 210).

b. John Demos, A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony. New York: Oxford U. Press, 1970.  


March 1 – Social Context of Witchcraft Continued

a. John P. Demos, Entertaining Satan, Parts III and IV (p. 211 to end)

b.  Nicholas P. Spanos, "Witchcraft and Social History," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 21 (1985): 60-67.

John Demos, "On 'Psychosocial' History: A Reply to Nicholas P. Spanos," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 21 (1985): 180-1.


March 8 - Community and Causation

a. Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum. Salem Possessed:  The Social Origins of Witchcraft. Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard University Press, 1974.

Benjamin Ray, The Geography of Witchcraft in Salem Village in 1692


b. Kenneth Lockridge, A New England Town the First Hundred Years. New York: Norton, 1970.

David G. Allen, In English Ways: The Movement of Societies and the Transferal of English Local Law and Custom to Massachusetts Bay in the Seventeenth Century.  New York: W.W. Norton, 1982.


March 15 - Spring Vacation Week – No Class




March 22  - Gender and Witchcraft

a.Carol Karlsen, The Devil in the Shape of a Woman:  Witchcraft in Colonial New England.  New York, 1987.

Elizabeth Reis, The Devil, the Body, and the Feminine Soul in Puritan New England  The Journal of American History > Vol. 82, No. 1 (Jun., 1995), pp. 15-36

b. Jane Kamensky, "Words, Witches, and Women Trouble: Witchcraft, Disorderly Speech, and Gender Boundaries in Puritan New England," Essex Institute Historical Collections 128 (1992): 286-307.

Lyle Koehler, A Search for Power: The“Weaker Sex” in Seventeenth Century New England. 1980. esp. 389-411.

Elizabeth Reis, Damned Women: Sinners & Witches in Puritan New England. Ithaca, NY:Cornell U  Press, 1997

Ann Kibbey, 'Mutations of the Supernatural: Witchcraft, Remarkable Providences, and the Power of Puritan Men," American Quarterly, 34 (1982): 125-48.



March 29  -  Ethnicity: Tituba and Slavery

a. Elainer Breslaw, Tituba's Confession: The Multicultural Dimensions of the 1692 Salem Witch-Hunt
Ethnohistory , Vol. 44, No. 3 (Summer, 1997), pp. 535-556

Veta Smith Tucker, Purloined Identity: The Racial Metamorphosis of Tituba of Salem Village
Journal of Black Studies , Vol. 30, No. 4 (Mar., 2000), pp. 624-634

Chadwick Hansen, "The Metamorphosis of Tituba: Or Why American Intellectuals Can't Tell an Indian Witch from a Negro." New England Quarterly,  47 (1974): 3-12.


Timothy McMillan, "Black Magic: Witchcraft, Race, and Resistance in Colonial New England," Journal of Black Studies 25 (1994), 99-117


Peter C. Hoffer, The Devils's Disciples: Makers of the Salem Witchcraft Trials. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995, “Prologue: Tituba,” pp. 1-16 and “Appendix: What is in a Name?” pp. 205-10.  

b. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. NY: NY University, 1997.

William D. Pierson, "Black Arts and Black Magic: Yankee Accomodations to African Religion," Benes, ed. Wonders of the Invisible World, 34-43.


April 5 -  Ethnicity: Native Americans and the Frontier

a. James Kences,   'Some Unexplored Relationships of Essex County Witchcraft to the Indian Wars of 1675 and 1689.'  Essex Institute Historical Collections 120 (1984):  181-211.

Emerson Baker and John Reid, The New England Knight, Sir William Phips, 1651-1695. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998, chapter 7, “Statecraft and Witchcraft, 1692” pp. 134-155.

Emerson Baker and James Kences, “Maine, Indian Land Speculation, and the Essex County Witchcraft Outbreak of 1692,” Maine History, volume 40, number 3, Fall 2001 (pp. 159-189) available on line (without footnotes) at

John McWilliams, "Indian John and the Northern Tawnies,"NEQ, 69 (1996):580-604.


b. Richard Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1973, Ch. 5.

Alfred A. Cave "Indian Shamans and English Witches in Seventeenth-Century New England," Essex Institute Historical Collections,  128 (1992): 239-254.

David S. Lovejoy, Satanizing the American Indian , The New England Quarterly,  Vol. 67, No. 4 (Dec., 1994), pp. 603-621




April 12 – Gender, Ethnicity and the Frontier

a. Mary Beth Norton, In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. NY: Vintage, 2003.

b. Louise Breen, Transgressing the Bounds: Subversive Enterprises among the Puritan Elite in Massachusetts, 1630-1692. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, especially chapter 5, 197-220


April 19 - Legal Aspects of Witchcraft in Salem

a. David T. Konig, Law and Society in Puritan Massachusetts: Essex County, 1629-1692. Chapel Hill:      University of North Carolina Press, 1979, pp. 158-85.

Craker, Wendel D. "Spectral Evidence, Non-Spectral Acts of Witchcraft and Confession at Salem in 1692." Historical Journal 40 (1997), 331-58.


David C. Brown, "The Forfeitures at Salem, 1692," WMQ 59 (1993): 85-111.


David C. Brown, "The Case of Giles Corey," Essex Institute Historical Collections, 121 (1985): 282-99.

b. Peter C. Hoffer, The Devils's Disciples: Makers of the Salem Witchcraft Trials. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

 John Murrin, "Magistrates, Sinners, and a Precarious Liberty: Trial by Jury in Seventeenth-Century New England." in Hall, Murrin & Tate, eds., Saints and Revolutionaries, 152-206.


April 26 – Causation: Quakers, Possession, Ergot, or What?

a. Christine Leigh Heyrman, "Spectres of Subversion, Societies of Friends: Dissent and the Devil in Provincial Essex County, Massachusetts," in Hall, Murrin, and Tate eds., Saints and Revolutionaries: Essays in Early American History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1984.

Mary K. Matossian, "Ergot and the Salem Witchcraft Affair." American Scientist, 70 (1982): 355-7.

Nicholas P. Spanos, "Ergotism and the Salem Witch Panic: A Critical Analysis and an Alternative Conceptualization." Journal of the History of the Behavorial Sciences, 19 (1983): 358-69. 

David Harley, Explaining Salem: Calvinist Psychology and the Diagnosis of Possession
The American Historical Review > Vol. 101, No. 2 (Apr., 1996), pp. 307-330

Anne C. Zeller, "Arctic Hysteria in Salem?" Anthropologica 32 (1990): 239-64.

Michael G. Hall, Review of A Fever in Salem: A New Interpretation of the New England Witch Trials by Laurie Winn Carlson Isis > Vol. 92, No. 1 (Mar., 2001), pp. 172-173

b. Laurie Winn Carlson, Fever in Salem: A New Interpretation of the New England Witch Trials,  NY, 1999.

Sargent, Mark L. "The Witches of Salem, the Angel of Hadley, and the Friends of Philadelphia." American Studies 34 (1993): 105-20. 


May 3     Witchcraft, Hauntings, and Remarkable Providences

a. Emerson Baker, The Stone-Throwing Devil of 1682: Witchcraft and Conflict on the Early New England Frontier (manuscript)

b. Elaine F. Crane, Killed Strangely: The Death of Rebecca Cornell. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Douglas Winiarski, "Pale Blewish Lights" and a Dead Man's Groan: Tales of the Supernatural from Eighteenth-Century Plymouth, Massachusetts The William and Mary Quarterly > 3rd Ser., Vol. 55, No. 4 (Oct., 1998), pp. 497-530








May 10 - a. Bernard Rosenthal, Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 204-218.


b. William McGill, "The Crucible of History: Arthur Miller's John Proctor," NEQ 54 (1981): 258-64.


Bernard A. Timburg, "Patty Hearst and Mercy Short: An Analogue Critique, Journal of American Culture, 6 (1983):60-64.

Chevedden, Paul E. Chevedden, "Ushering in the Millennium, Or How an American City Reversed the Past and Single-Handedly Inaugurated the End-Time," in Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies, 22.  1997.  35-67.
Peter Charles Hoffer, Invisible Worlds and Criminal Trials The Cases of John Proctor and O. J. Simpson 

The American Journal of Legal History, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 287-314


Bibliography - Even more readings in specialized interests you may develop


European Witchcraft and Magic


Barry, Jonathan, Marianne Hester, and Gareth Roberts, eds. Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.


Briggs, Robin. Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft. New York: Viking, 1996.


Kieckhefer, Richard.  European Witch Trials:  their Foundations in Popular and Learned Culture. London: Routledge, 1976.


Klaits, Joseph.   Servants of Satan:  the Age of the Witch Hunts. Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 1985


Ginzburg, Carlo.  The Cheese and the Worms.  The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-century Miller.  Translated by John and Anne Tedeschi. New York:  Penguin, 1982


Ginzburg, Carlo.  The Night Battles.  Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.  Translated by John and Anne Tedeschi.  New York:  Penguin, 1985


Oldridge, Darren. ed. The Witchcraft Reader. London: Routledge, 2002.


English Witchcraft


Davies, Owen. Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, 1736-1951. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.


Gaskill, Malcolm. Witchfinders: A Seventeenth-Century English Tragedy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.


Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn, A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. Routledge: New York, 1997.


Macfarlane, Alan.  Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England:  a Regional and Comparative Study.             London:  Routledge, 1970.


Poole, Robert, ed. The Lancashire Witches: Histories and Stories. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002.


Sharpe, James. Instruments of Darkness: Witchcraft in Early Modern England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.


Sharpe, James. The Bewitching of Anne Gunter: A Horrible and True Story of Deception, Witchcraft, Murder, and the King of England. New York: Routledge, 1999.




Brown, David C. A Guide to the Salem Witchcraft Hysteria of 1692. Published by the author, 1984.


Essex Institute, Perspectives on Witchcraft: Rethinking the Seventeenth-Century Experience. Essex Institute Historical Collections, 128(4) and 129(1), 1992-1993.


Gildrie, Richard P.  Salem, Massachusetts, 1626–1683: A Covenant Community.  Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 1975.


Gragg, Larry D.  The Salem Witch Crisis.  New York:  Praeger, 1992.


Hansen, Chadwick. Witchcraft at Salem. New York:  George Braziller, 1969.


Hill, Francis. A Delusion of Satan: The Full Story of the Salem Witch Trials. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1996.


Hoffer, Peter C.  The Devils's Disciples: Makers of the Salem Witchcraft Trials. Baltimore: Johns             Hopkins University Press, 1995.



Robinson, Enders.  The Devil Discovered:  Salem Witchcraft 1692. New York:  Hippocrene Press,           



Starkey, Marion Lena.  The Devil in Massachusetts. A Modern Inquiry into the Salem Witch          

            Trials. New York:  Doubleday, 1949




Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans: A Study in the Sociology of Deviance.  New York: John Wiley, 1966, especially pp. 137-59


Foster, Stephen.  The Long Argument: English Puritanism and the Shaping of New England Culture, 1570–1700.  Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina University Press, 1991.


Gura, Philip. A Glimpse of Sion’s Glory: Puritan Radicalism in New England, 1620-1660. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1984.


Hill, Christopher.  The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution.  Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.


Miller, Perry.  Errand into the Wilderness.  New York: Harper & Row, 1956.


Miller, Perry.  The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1939.


Morgan, Edmund S.  Visible Saints: The History of a Puritan Idea.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1963.


Winship, Michael. Making Heretics: Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636-1641. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.



The Law


Dayton, Cornelia Hughes. Women Before the Bar: Gender, Law and Society in Connecticut, 1639-1789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.


Hoffer, Peter C. The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997.


Hull, N.E.H. Female Felons: Women and Serious Crime in Colonial New England. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987. 


Marsella, Paul D.  Crime and Community in Early Massachusetts: Essex County, 1700–1785.  Acton, MA: Tapestry, 1990.


McManus, Edgar J.  Law and Liberty in Early New England: Criminal Justice and Due Process, 1620–1692. Amherst: Massachusetts, 1993.





Bailyn, New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955.


Innes, Stephen. Creating Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995.


Vickers, Daniel. Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630-1850. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.



New England Society


Breen, Louise. Transgressing the Bounds: Subversive Enterprises among the Puritan Elite in Massachusetts, 1630-1692. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.


Demos, John. A Little Commonwealth. Family Life in Plymouth Colony. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.


Kamensky, Jane. Governing the Tongue: The Politics of Speech in Early New England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.


Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Family. New York: Harper, 1942.





Primary Sources


Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum, eds. Salem Village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of  

            Local Conflict in Colonial New England. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1993.


Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum, eds. The Salem Witchcraft Papers: Verbatim Transcripts of the Legal Documents of the Salem Witchcraft Outbreat of 1692. New York: De Capo Press, 1977.   Available on line at:


Burr, G. Lincoln, ed.  Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648-1706.  New York:  Barnes and

            Noble, 1914  - reprinted by Dover, 2002.  Partially available on line at:


Drake, Samuel E., ed.  The Witchcraft Delusion in New England.  3 vols.  Roxbury, Mass.:  Eliot

            Woodward, 1866


Hall, David D., ed. Witch-Hunting in Seventeenth-Century New England. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991.


Institoris, Heinrich (1430-1505).  Malleus Malificarum.  Translated with introductions, bibliography, and notes by Montague Summers. New York:  Dover, 1971. On line version at:


Parris, Samuel (1653-1720).  The Sermon Notebook of Samuel Parris, 1689-1694, edited by James F.       Cooper.  Boston:  Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 1993


Trask, Richard B.  "The Devil Has Been Raised”: A Documentary History of the Salem Witchcraft            Outbreak of March 1692.  Phoenix, 1992.


The Town


Greven, Philip. Four Generations:  Population, Land, and Family in Colonial Andover, Massachusetts. Ithaca:  Cornell University Press, 1970.


Martin, John Frederick.  Profits in the Wilderness: Entrepreneurship and the Founding of New England Towns in the Seventeenth Century.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.


Powell, Sumner Chilton.  Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town.  Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1963.


Thompson, Roger. Divided We Stand: Watertown, Massachusetts, 1630-1680. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.


Race and Ethnicity


Axtell, James.  The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.


Axtell, James.  The Invasion Within.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.


Jordan, Winthrop D. The White Man's Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.




Breslaw, Elaine. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York: New York University Press, 1996.


Norton, Mary Beth. Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society. New York: Vintage Press, 1997.


Reis, Elizabeth. Damned Women: Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.


Thompson, Roger. Sex in Middlesex: Popular Mores in a Massachusetts County, 1649-1699. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1986.


Ulrich, Laurel.  Goodwives: Image and reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750.  New York: W.W. Norton, 1982.


Williams, Selma R.  Riding the Nightmare:  Women and Witchcraft from the Old World to Colonial Salem  New York:  Harper Perennial, 1992


Magic and the Occult


Benes, Peter, ed. Wonders of the Invisible World:Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar of New England Folklife. Boston:  Boston University, 1992.


Kieckhefer, Richard. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1989.


Godbeer, Richard. The Devil's Dominion:  Magic and Religion in Early New England. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.


Wilson, Stephen. The Magical Universe: Everyday Ritual and Magic in Pre-Modern Europe. New York: Hambleton and London, 2000.




Baker, Emerson W. and John Reid. New England Knight: Advancement, Enrichment and the Life of Sir William Phips, University of Toronto Press, 1998.


Breen, T.H.  The Character of the Good Ruler: A Study of Puritan Political Ideas in New England, 1630-1730.  New Haven:  Yale University Press, 1970


Johnson, Richard R. Adjustment to Empire: The New England Colonies, 1675-1715.  New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1981


Lovejoy, David.  The Glorious Revolution in America.  New York: Harper and Row, 1972








Material Culture and Popular Culture


Cressy, David. Agnes Bowker’s Cat: Travesties and Transgressions in Tudor and Stuart England. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.


Gramley, Richard M. "Witchcraft Pictographs Near Salem, Massachusetts." Historical Archaeology, 15 (1981):113-16.


Hutton, Ronald. The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year 1400-1700. New York:      Oxford University Press, 1994.


Merrifield, Ralph. The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic. New York: New Amsterdam Books, 1987.


Reay, Barry ed. Popular Culture in Seventeenth-Century England. London: Routledge, 1988.


Robert Blair St. George, Conversion by Signs: Poetics of Implication in Colonial New England Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998


Underdown, David. Revel, Riot and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England 1603-1660. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.



Seventeenth-Century Drama


Dekker, Thomas, with John Ford and William Rowley. The Witch of Edmonton. 1621.


Marlowe, Christopher. Dr. Faustus. 1604.


Middleton, Thomas. The Witch. 1609. On line at:


Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. 1605.


Wills, Garry. Witches and Jesuits: Shakespeare's Macbeth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.



World Wide Web Sites


Salem Witch Trials and Documentary Archive, at University of Virgina’s E-Text Center


Seventeenth-Century Colonial New England with Special Emphasis on the Essex County Witch Hunt of 1692. 


The Goody Parsons Witchcraft Case: A Journey to Seventeenth-Century Northhampton


Cornell University Library Witchcraft Collection






Three Soverigns for Sarah

Days of Judgement

The Crucible

Witch City





Museums and Exhibits

The Rebecca Nurse Homestead, Danvers

The Witch House, Salem

Salem Witch Museum

Witch Dungeon Museum

Salem Witch Village

The Real Witchcraft Papers - Peabody Essex Museum